Question 1 : Eighteen.
Unionism ran high in several regions of the state. Opposition to secession was concentrated in counties along
the northern border of the state and in a circle of counties surrounding Austin.
Question 2 : Glorieta Pass.
battle of Glorieta on March 28, 1862, resulted in casualties of about a hundred men on each side. While the Confederate forces
under Maj. William Read Scurry drove the main Union force from the battlefield, a Federal flanking force captured and destroyed
the rebel supply train, thus forcing the Confederate army to give up the expedition. The battle of Valverde, fought near Mesilla,
New Mexico, a month earlier, was the largest Civil War battle fought in the Rocky Mountain West.
Question 3 :
Col. Santos Benavides, along with his two brothers, Refugio Benavides and Cristóbal Benavides, who both became captains in the regiment, compiled a brilliant record
of border defense and were widely heralded as heroes throughout the Lone Star State. The Benavides brothers defeated a band
of anti-Confederate revolutionaries commanded by Juan N. Cortina at Carrizo (Zapata) in May 1861 and on three separate occasions invaded
northern Mexico in retaliation for Unionist-inspired guerilla raids into Texas. The Benavides brothers were also successful
in driving off a small Union force that attacked Laredo in March 1864. José Ángel Navarro served in the Texas Legislature during the Civil War. Adrián J. Vidal, one of the more extreme examples of the political complexities of
life on the border in this period, served as an officer in both the Confederate and Union armies and under Juan Cortina.
4 : Camp Ford.
Over the two years of its existence as a prisoner of war camp, about 6,000 Union troops were held at
Camp Ford, with a peak population of 4,725 in the spring of 1864. Fort Concho, a post-war army base, protected the line of settlement from the 1860s
through the 1880s. Camp Maxey, named for Confederate general Samuel Bell Maxey, was a World War II training camp, while Camp Travis fulfilled a similar function in World War I. Andersonville, perhaps
the most notorious of the Civil War prison camps, was located in Georgia.
Question 5 : Hood’s Texas
Hood’s Texas Brigade, composed of the 1st, 4th, and 5th Texas Infantry regiments, the 18th
Georgia Infantry, elements of Wade Hampton’s South Carolina Legion and the 3rd Arkansas Infantry, was named for its
commander, John Bell Hood. The brigade fought through many of the bloodiest battles of the war
in the Eastern Theater, including Sharpsburg (Antietam), Gettysburg, and the Wilderness. The other four Texas units offered
as choices served in the Western Theater of operations. Benjamin Franklin Terry raised the Eighth Texas Cavalry Regiment, or Terry’s Texas Rangers. Gano’s Brigade was organized by Richard Henry Gano. Waul's Texas Legion, the only true legion of Texas troops in the Confederate army, was
raised in and around Brenham in the spring of 1862 by Thomas Neville Waul. Walker’s Texas Division, the only division in Confederate service composed throughout its
existence of troops from a single state, took its name from Maj. Gen. John George Walker.
Question 6 : Albert Sidney Johnston.
Albert Sidney Johnston was born in 1803 and graduated from West Point. In 1836 he moved to
Texas and commanded the Army of the Republic of Texas the following year. After serving in the Mexican War as a colonel of Texas volunteer troops, he commanded the elite Second United States Cavalry on the frontier. When the Civil War broke out, he became a general
in the Confederate forces, and was in command of the Western Department when he was killed at Shiloh. His grave in the State Cemetery in Austin is marked by a stone monument executed by noted sculptor
Elisabet Ney. John Bell Hood commanded Hood’s Texas Brigade and rose to command the Army of the Tennessee during the Atlanta Campaign
of 1864. Earl Van Dorn also held high command in the Western Theater. Thomas (Stonewall)
Jackson and James Longstreet were both corps commanders in Robert E. Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia.
Question 7 : Isabelle
In 1865 Isabelle Boyd published an account of her wartime activities, Belle Boyd in
Camp and Prison. In later years she toured the country, recounting her adventures while dressed in a Confederate uniform
and cavalry-style hat. Her fashionable house on Pocahontas Street in Dallas, which she sold on July 29, 1887, was razed in
1963. Myra Maybelle "Belle" Shirley Starr was an outlaw who consorted with an array of shady characters in the
aftermath of the Civil War. Another celebrated outlaw of the time, Calamity Jane, was an associate of Wild Bill Hickok. Nineteenth-century
Romantic novelist Susanna Shubrick Hayne Pinckney wrote several fictional works on the Civil War. Clara Barton served
as superintendent of Union nurses during the Civil War and was founding president of the American Red Cross.
8 : William Clarke Quantrill.
At the outbreak of the war William Clarke Quantrill formed a group of renegades in the Kansas-Missouri area and carried
out raids on Union camps, patrols and sympathizers. Following the success of his Lawrence raid in 1863, he and his men wintered
in Grayson County, Texas, and returned there in the winter of 1864–65. Quantrill was mortally wounded near the end of
the war, and died on June 6, 1865. Quantrill’s associate William L. Anderson, known as "Bloody Bill," was gunned down by Unionist militia. Confederate
general Edmund Kirby Smith commanded the Trans-Mississippi Department for much of the Civil War.
Cole Younger and Jesse James were Southern guerrillas who fought under Quantrill and went on to become notorious outlaws after
Question 9 : the Nueces.
At the battle of the Nueces a force of ninety-four Confederates under James Duff routed a group of between sixty-one and sixty-eight Hill Country Unionists
on the banks of the West Nueces River, killing nineteen. After the war the remains of the Unionists killed
at the battle site were gathered and interred at nearby Comfort, Texas, where a monument commemorates the Germans and one Hispanic killed
in the battle and subsequent actions. See also the Handbook entry on German attitude toward the Civil War.
Question 10: Galveston.
Gordon Granger officially declared the institution of slavery dead in the Lone Star
State upon his arrival in Galveston, Texas. The tidings of freedom reached slaves gradually as individual plantation
owners read the proclamation to their bondsmen over the months following the end of the war. The news elicited an array of
personal celebrations. Within a short time Juneteenth was marked by festivities throughout the state and, as African Americans moved away from Texas, the holiday spread to other states as